Mr. Rickard has served as our chief operating officer since April 2020. Prior to his appointment as the company’s senior vice president, chief operating officer, Mr. Rickard had been the company’s senior vice president, operations since July 2018, in which capacity he led the company’s manufacturing, pharmaceutical development, quality, human resources, information technology and facilities functions. Before becoming senior vice president, operations, Mr. Rickard served as the company’s vice president global operations and information technology from July 2015 to July 2018; vice president global operations from 2014 to July 2015; vice president commercial manufacturing supply chain from 2013 to 2014; and head of supply chain from 2012 to 2013. Prior to joining Ironwood, Mr. Rickard was with Genentech, Inc. from 2000 to 2012 in roles of increasing responsibility in manufacturing and supply chain. Mr. Rickard began his career as a mechanical engineer at AMOT Controls Corporation. Mr. Rickard holds an M.S. from California State University — Sacramento and a B.S. from California State University — Chico, both in mechanical engineering.