Mr. Minardo has served as our chief legal officer since August 2021. Prior to joining Ironwood, Mr. Minardo was with Seqirus, a pharmaceutical company, where he was vice president, general counsel and a member of the Seqirus executive leadership team, leading a global legal team overseeing activities including business transactions, regulatory matters, corporate governance, compliance and intellectual property from November 2015 to July 2021. Prior to Seqirus, Mr. Minardo was with Novartis in increasing roles of responsibility from October 2007 to November 2015, ultimately serving as vice president, general counsel and chief compliance officer at Novartis Influenza Vaccines. Mr. Minardo started his legal career as a litigator at Kaye Scholer LLP. Mr. Minardo holds a B.A. from Boston College and a J.D. from Brooklyn Law School.